Climate models are used to predict how the climate will change in the future .
But what is the climate?
The climate is a system which involves the atmosphere, oceans, ice, soil, and all living things on Earth . It changes constantly due to interactions between these different parts within the climate system [2,3] e.g. trees releasing water into the atmosphere leading to increased rainfall in those areas .
The climate can also be forced to change by adding outside “forcings”  such as volcanic eruptions  or increased CO 2 emissions  .
Climate models make predictions by simulating these interactions, feedbacks and forcings . To do this scientists must represent these processes using complex scientific equations [8,9,10]. For example, some equations will be based on balancing the energy [9,10] from the sun with the energy absorbed or reflected by the earth and atmosphere .
Climate scientists make future predictions using their climate models by putting expected values of CO 2 emissions and other variables into the equations .
 https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WG1AR5_TS_FINAL.pdf (See: Box TS.6 Paragraph 1)
 https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/chapter/glossary/ (See: climate systems)
 https://royalsociety.org/-/media/policy/Publications/2017/27-11-2017-Climate-change-updates-report.pdf (See: Pg 10 paragraph 5)
Link: https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/z29ccdm/revision/1 (See: Paragraph 3 & and 4 and diagram – talking about transpiration)
 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2006.00211.x (See: Section 6.2 Paragraph 5)
 https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/chapter/glossary/ (See: radiative forcing)
 https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WG1AR5_Chapter09_FINAL.pdf (See: 184.108.40.206)
 https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WG1AR5_Chapter09_FINAL.pdf (See: Box 9.1 Paragraph 1)
 https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rsta.2008.0169 (See: Section 2 Paragraph 1)
 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1600-0870.2006.00211.x (See: Section 2 Paragraph 1)
 https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WG1AR5_Chapter09_FINAL.pdf (See: “energy balance” in 9.1.2, 220.127.116.11.4 and 18.104.22.168 (Paragraph 3))
 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z (See: Introduction paragraph 1)
Join our Newsletter!
Climate Science is registered as a non-profit company limited by guarantee in England and Wales.
Copyright © 2019-2020 Climate Science Ltd. All rights reserved.